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What is VVF?

VVF - Vesicovaginal Fistula

VVF  is an abnormal opening that forms between the bladder and the vagina which leads to incontinence of Urine in the case of VVF or in the case of rectovaginal Fistula RVF. VVF and RVF are caused by obstructed labor. There are other causes of VVF such as female genital mutilation.


  • World Health Organization WHO, February 2018 states: "Each year between 50 000 to 100 000 women worldwide are affected by obstetric fistula, an abnormal opening between a woman’s genital tract and her urinary tract or rectum.

  • World Health Organization WHO, February 2018 states: The development of obstetric fistula is directly linked to one of the major causes of maternal mortality: obstructed labor. Women who experience obstetric fistula suffer constant incontinence, shame, social segregation, and health problems. It is estimated that more than 2 million young women live with untreated obstetric fistula in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa". 

  • World Health Organization WHO, February 2018 states that Obstructed labor accounts for up to 6% of all maternal deaths. It is a cause of maternal mortality and morbidity.

  • An article by The Lancet Global Health called "Burden of obstetric fistula: from measurement to action."​The article describes VVF women as women who have been considered the most dispossessed, outcast, powerless group of women in the world." 

  • reports 26 countries “Where Child Marriage Eclipses Girls' Education” Out of that 26, 24 of those countries are in Africa the number one county is Niger", and Nigeria is number 20 on this list.

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